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Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus)

H.P. Aithal, P. Kinjavdekar, A.M. Pawde, K. Pratap

Journal of the South African Veterinary Association; Vol 72, No 2 (2001), 84-91. doi: 10.4102/jsava.v72i2.623

Submitted: 09 July 2001
Published:  09 July 2001


The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg) and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg) and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II). The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s) compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min). Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I) and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II), and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

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Author affiliations

H.P. Aithal,
P. Kinjavdekar,
A.M. Pawde,
K. Pratap,


Analgesia; Goats; Intrathecal; Ketamine; Romifidine


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ISSN: 1019-9128 (print) | ISSN: 2224-9435 (online)

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