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After-hours equine emergency admissions at a university referral hospital (1998 - 2007) : causes and interventions

A. Viljoen, M.N. Saulez, C.M. Donnellan, L. Bester, B. Gummow

Journal of the South African Veterinary Association; Vol 80, No 3 (2009), 169-173. doi: 10.4102/jsava.v80i3.196

Submitted: 23 May 2009
Published:  23 May 2009


Medical records of equine after-hours admissions from 1998 to 2007 are reviewed. Data extracted from the medical records included signalment, reason for admission, pre-admission treatment, clinical presentation, procedures performed, final diagnoses, complications occurring in hospital, length of stay and outcome. Eight hundred and twenty after-hours admissions were available of which 75 % were classified as emergencies. Most horses originated from Gauteng province (82 %), with Thoroughbred, Arabian, and Warmbloods representing 46 %, 10 % and 7 % of horses. Horses had a median age of 7 years and were predominantly male (60 %). Gastrointestinal (64 %) and musculoskeletal (19 %) disorders were the primary reasons for admission. Anti-inflammatories, sedation and antibiotics were given in 51 %, 20 % and 15 % of cases respectively prior to referral. On admission, 23 % of horses had surgical intervention. Intravenous catheterisation (64 %), rectal examination (61 %), nasogastric intubation (56 %), abdominocentesis (33 %) and ultrasonography (19 %) were the procedures performed most frequently. Surgical and medical colics constituted 28 % and 27 % respectively of the overall diagnoses, while piroplasmosis was diagnosed in 5 % of horses. Post-admission complications occurred in <2 % of horses. The median length of stay was 4 days (95 % CI: 1 to 21 days). Overall survival to discharge was 74 %. This study demonstrates that the majority of after-hours equine admissions to a university referral hospital required medical intervention and were mostly due to gastrointestinal disorders. Information obtained from this study can be used in emergency referral planning.

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Author affiliations

A. Viljoen,
M.N. Saulez,
C.M. Donnellan,
L. Bester,
B. Gummow,


emergency medicine; equine hospital; gastrointestinal; musculoskeletal; piroplasmosis; ultrasonography


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1. Review of Equine Piroplasmosis
L.N. Wise, L.S. Kappmeyer, R.H. Mealey, D.P. Knowles
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine  vol: 27  issue: 6  first page: 1334  year: 2013  
doi: 10.1111/jvim.12168

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